- (1895-1973)social theorist; chief organizer of the Frankfurt School s* intellectual life and proponent of its theoretical perspective, "critical theory. Born to a Jewish textile manufacturer in Stuttgart, he reluc-tantly entered the family business upon completing Gymnasium in 1910. Em-boldened by service during World War I, he quit the factory and during 1919-1925 studied philosophy. He completed his doctorate in 1922 and his Habili-tation in 1925 and was appointed Professor for Social Philosophy at Frankfurt in 1930.Horkheimer was drawn to Marxism as a student. With like-minded students— including Theodor Adorno,* Leo Loewenthal, and Felix Weil—he was espe-cially attracted to the thought of Georg Lukacs* and Karl Korsch.* In 1923, gaining support from Weil s father, he prompted the founding of the Institute for Social Research (i.e., the Frankfurt School, affiliated with the University of Frankfurt). The school's first director was Carl Grünberg, a Marxist professor. When illness forced Grtinberg's retirement in 1931, leadership passed to Hork-heimer, by then a university professor. Horkheimer energized the school, largely by founding the Zeitschrift fur Sozialforschung. In addition to his own contri-butions, the Zeitschrift published the social psychology of Erich Fromm, Henryk Grossmann s ideas on Karl Marx, Loewenthal s sociology of literature, and Adorno s sociology of music*.Upon Hitler's* seizure of power, Horkheimer was fired, the Frankfurt School was seized, and the Zeitschrift ceased publication in the spring of 1933 (it later reappeared, first in Paris and then in New York). With several friends—most of whom were socialists and of Jewish ancestry—Horkheimer went first to Ge-neva and then in 1934 to New York. Affiliated with Columbia University, the school reopened and began stressing its "critical theory of society." The pres-sures of war and growing intellectual conflict eventually induced a schism. In 1949 Adorno and Horkheimer helped reestablish the old school in Frankfurt.Horkheimer's confidence that workers could regenerate society evaporated after 1945. Gradually believing that no viable political practice could lead to qualitative change, he became absorbed with the totalitarian threat to individu-alism.REFERENCES:Peter Gay, Weimar Culture; IESS; Jay, Dialectical Imagination; Wiggers-haus, Frankfurt School.
A Historical dictionary of Germany's Weimar Republic, 1918-1933. C. Paul Vincent.
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HORKHEIMER, MAX — (1895–1973), German sociologist. Born in Stuttgart, Horkheimer studied philosophy as well as sociology at German universities; he became professor of social philosophy at the University of Frankfurt in 1930 and director of the Institut fuer… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Horkheimer, Max — born Feb. 14, 1895, Stuttgart, Ger. died July 7, 1973, Nürnberg German philosopher and social theorist. He received his Ph.D. in philosophy at the University of Frankfurt in 1922. In 1930 he became director of the university s newly founded… … Universalium
Horkheimer, Max — (1895–1973) Horkheimer’s contribution to Marxism consists in his role in creating the Frankfurt School and developing the “critical theory” that emerged from the school. Born in Stuttgart, Germany, Horkheimer was educated at the universities… … Historical dictionary of Marxism
Horkheimer, Max — (14 feb. 1895, Stuttgart, Alemania–7 jul. 1973, Nuremberg). Filósofo y teórico social alemán. Obtuvo su Ph.D. en filosofía en la Universidad de Francfort en 1922. En 1930 fue nombrado director del recién fundado Instituto de Investigaciones… … Enciclopedia Universal
Horkheimer, Max — (1895 1973) German sociol ogist. He was born in Stuttgart. He became professor of social philosophy at the University of Frankfurt am Main in 1930. He emigrated to Paris in 1933 and the following year went to the US. From 1945 to 1947 he… … Dictionary of Jewish Biography
Horkheimer, Max — See Critical theory … History of philosophy
Horkheimer, Max — (1895 1973) A leading member of the Frankfurt Institute for Social Research, he is best known in sociology for his critique of the dominant rationality of late capitalism . His most important books are The Eclipse of Reason (1947) and Critique of … Dictionary of sociology
Horkheimer — Horkheimer, Max … Dictionary of sociology
Max Horkheimer — et Theodor W. Adorno en avant plan, avec … Wikipédia en Français
Max Horkheimer — (front left), Theodor Adorno (front right), and Jürgen Habermas (in the background, right), in 1965 at Heidelberg. Full name Max Horkheimer Born February 14, 1895 … Wikipedia